Grad-CAM: Visual Explanations from Deep Networks via Gradient-based Localization: https://github.com/ramprs/grаd-cаm (Grad-cam source code)
Grad-CAM Paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1610.02391v3
We propose a technique for producing “visual explanations” for decisions from a large class of CNN-based models, making them more transparent. Our approach – Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM), uses the gradients of any target concept, flowing into the final convolutional layer to produce a coarse localization map highlighting the important regions in the image for predicting the concept. Unlike previous approaches, GradCAM is applicable to a wide variety of CNN model-families: (1) CNNs with fully-connected layers (e.g. VGG), (2) CNNs used for structured outputs (e.g. captioning), (3) CNNs used in tasks with multimodal inputs (e.g. VQA) or reinforcement learning, without any architectural changes or re-training. We combine GradCAM with fine-grained visualizations to create a high-resolution class-discriminative visualization and apply it to off-the-shelf image classification, captioning, and visual question answering (VQA) models, including ResNet-based architectures. In the context of image classification models, our visualizations (a) lend insights into their failure modes (showing that seemingly unreasonable predictions have reasonable explanations), (b) are robust to adversarial images, (c) outperform previous methods on weakly-supervised localization, (d) are more faithful to the underlying model and (e) help achieve generalization by identifying dataset bias. For captioning and VQA, our visualizations show that even non-attention based models can localize inputs. Finally, we conduct human studies to measure if GradCAM explanations help users establish trust in predictions from deep networks and show that GradCAM helps untrained users successfully discern a “stronger” deep network from a “weaker” one. Our code is available at this https URL A demo and a video of the demo can be found at this http URL and youtu.be/COjUB9Izk6E.
In this work, we proposed a novel class-discriminative localization technique – Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) – and combined it with existing high-resolution visualizations to produce visual expla-nations for CNN-based models.