Google Vizier: A Service for Black-Box Optimization: https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/research.google.com/en//pubs/archive/46180.pdf [PDF]
Google Vizier – Paper ABSTRACT: Any sufficiently complex system acts as a black box when it becomes easier to experiment with than to understand. Hence, black-box optimization has become increasingly important as systems have become more complex. In this paper we describe Google Vizier, a Google-internal service for performing black-box optimization that has become the de facto parameter tuning engine at Google. Google Vizier is used to optimize many of our machine learning models and other systems, and also provides core capabilities to Google’s Cloud Machine Learning HyperTune subsystem. We discuss our requirements, infrastructure design, underlying algorithms, and advanced features such as transfer learning and automated early stopping that the service provides.
Google Vizier – Paper KEYWORDS: Black-Box Optimization, Bayesian Optimization, Gaussian Processes, Hyperparameters, Transfer Learning, Automated Stopping